Rooting is the process of allowing smartphone users that run on Android operating system to attain privileged control over Android subsystems. As Android uses Linux kernel, rooting Android device gives similar access to administrative permissions as on Linux.

what is rooting Android explained by techapu

Rooting is performed with an aim to overcome limitations that carriers and hardware manufacturers set on their devices. Thus, rooting gives the ability to alter or replace system applications and settings, run specialized apps that require administrative permissions, or perform other operations that cannot be done in normal Android user mode. Rooting also facilitates complete removal and replacement of the device's operating system, usually with a more recent release of its current operating system (Custom ROMs).

Root access is sometimes compared to jailbreaking. However, it is a different concept. Jailbreaking is to bypass several types of Apple prohibitions for the end user, including modifying the operating system, installing unofficial apps via side-loading, and granting the user elevated administrative privileges. Many OEM manufacturers such as HTC, Sony, Asus, RedMi, and Google explicitly provide the ability to unlock devices. Similarly, the ability to sideload applications is allowed on Android devices without root permissions.

Rooting lets all user-installed applications run on privilege commands typically inaccessible to the devices in the stock firmware. Rooting is required to perform more advanced and potentially dangerous operations such as modifying or deleting system files, removing pre-installed apps (Bloatware), and higher access to the hardware. Rooting also installs Superuser application, which supervises applications that are granted superuser rights by requesting approval from the user before granting permissions.

Rooting an Android phone lets the user add, edit or delete system files, which in turn lets them perform various tweaks and use applications that require root access.

So in the world of Android, you’ll often hear about Custom ROMs. The term ROM stands for Read Only Memory, used for storing files. As Android is open source and anyone with can access the code, modify it if he can understand Android language. Users can install Custom ROMs to change a device’s appearance and behavior. Custom ROMs are developed by the Android community, often by a group of core developers who do this purely out of passion. They create mods and thereby help Android users in using them. As Android is open source Custom ROMs are almost available for all the phones, tablets, media players, smartwatches.

1. ROM

ROM is abbreviated as Read Only Memory. A "ROM" is the operating system software that runs your smartphone. It is stored in the “Read Only Memory” portion of the hardware on the Android smartphone. Android comes in two forms: Stock ROM and Custom ROM.

a. STOCK ROM

Stock ROM is the Operating System that comes pre-installed when you buy a smartphone. It is also called STOCK FIRMWARE. These are customized versions of Android developed by manufacturers and carriers like Sony, Samsung, Google, and others to let users stick to their devices with unique looks and features. The out-of-the-box smartphones are all shipped with stock ROM. This ROM usually has limited functionality as it is pre-defined by the device’s manufacturer. When you are using stock ROM you will have a stock recovery where you can do a few modifications.

b. CUSTOM ROM

Custom ROMs are the ones which are customized or developed from the original source code of Android. Custom ROMs are not provided by Google or other mobile OEM manufacturers but are developed and maintained by a group of community and its contributors. The developed Custom ROMs differ from the original source code in features and looks. When you root Android and flash a Rom then that is the CUSTOM ROM. Rooting is possible only through Custom Recovery. Through that interface only you can flash custom Roms and some mods. Flashing a ROM is easy and if you follow instructions carefully then you can achieve what you are looking for. But you should not skip a step in the process listed for a device.

2. KERNEL

Kernel acts as the heart. It is a mediator between the hardware and software of the system. When software needs the hardware to do something, it sends a request to the kernel, from there kernel interacts with the hardware, hardware initiates what software has asked to do.

a. STOCK KERNEL

Now you know what a kernel is. Kernels are developed by Linus. Various manufacturers like Android, Windows, Mac OS, and others take the code from it and makes some changes to it, embed it into their devices. When you buy a product like say a Windows, then your system has its own kernel. It comes with some specifications and no modifications (like patches drivers). It is called STOCK KERNEL. But it provides only some features. Android kernel is the same way of acting as an intermediate between software and hardware. Every interaction between software and hardware has to happen under the presence of kernel only. From taps to swipes and others all those happen only with the help of kernel. Without a kernel, it will be tough to design a product.

b. CUSTOM KERNEL

Now you know the stock kernel is the one that comes with the device you buy. It only provides some features. Well like a custom ROM CUSTOM KERNEL is also developed be developers by making some modifications or adding some extra features to it. A custom kernel works the way you want it to do.